From Chapter Three, Vegetable Oil Lamps:

#1 — The World's Simplest Lamp

Pour ¼-inch of cooking oil in the bottom of a cereal bowl. A clear glass bowl is best — where light can escape through the sides of the bowl — but an opaque ceramic bowl or even an empty tuna fish can will suffice.

Soak up a cotton ball or puff (the kind with which m'lady removes her makeup) in the oil. Roll it around in the oil and make sure it is saturated. When I demonstrated this lamp to my sister she said, "Don't you need a wick or something?" Yes, you do. The cotton puff is the wick.

Surprisingly, a ball of paper towel (from a 2" x 2" square of toweling), rolled up between your palms like a child rolls up a ball of clay, also works. A puff made of synthetic fibers, however, will not work. Synthetic fibers (e.g. polyester) melt in the heat of the flame. The melting seals off the capillary action by which fuel is drawn to the flame.

After the puff is saturated with oil, pinch a small nipple or point on it and light the point with a match. (The base of the puff sets in the oil and the point or nipple is on top.)

Here you will encounter Problem #1. Vegetable oil is fiendishly difficult to ignite. This is not all bad. It makes a vegetable-oil lamp a very safe lamp. If you knock it over, it will make a mess but it won't start a fire. In your first attempt at lighting a vegetable-oil lamp, you will soon find yourself surrounded by an array of oil-soaked matches and oil-soaked matchboxes.

SOLUTION: Put a drop or two of a flammable or combustible liquid on the nipple, then light it with a match. The liquid flares up for a couple of seconds and burns itself off, leaving behind a small candle-sized flame from the now-burning vegetable oil.

"Flammable" includes gasoline, nail polish remover, dry gas, and cigarette lighter fluid. "Combustible" includes charcoal lighter fluid, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Whatever works.

Be cool. There are 76 drops in a teaspoon. One drop of gasoline is not going to explode and blow the windows out of your house.

How do you get one drop? With an eyedropper. Or with a tiny bit on the end of a teaspoon, dripped onto the puff.

Problem #2. After thirty minutes of burning, the vegetable oil begins to warm and volatilize more easily. The flame spreads, gets bigger, and begins to smoke.

SOLUTION: Put a metal collar around the flame. A ¼-inch washer from the workshop is ideal. Pull the oil-soaked cotton nipple through the hole in the center of the washer before lighting it.

You can also fashion a metal collar from a piece of aluminum foil, the size of a postage stamp. Poke a hole through the center with a pencil point. The objective is to prevent the flame on the puff from getting too big.

This lamp will provide light for many hours. It's cheap, simple, easy to make.

Its disadvantage lies in the struggle encountered when adjusting the size of the flame — pulling more cotton through the washer to get a larger flame or pushing some cotton back through the hole if you pulled too much out. The washer gets hot. The oil is messy. But despite any drawbacks, it does work.

Chapter Three gives eight more vegetable-oil lamp designs. Chapter Four gives an additional four designs that will burn animal-based fat (lard, butter) in addition to vegetable oil.

From Chapter Eighteen, Petromax

Petromax Basics

I used to have a friend at work who pulled into the parking lot each day in his clanking Volkswagen diesel. He would get out, shaking his head. "When you go to the dealer, they brag about German engineering. They neglect to mention that it's built in Mexico."

Petromax lanterns are like that.

On older lanterns you'll find, under the Petromax logo, "Made in Germany" on the left and "Regd" on the right. "Regd" stands for registered. But no Petromax lanterns have been made in Germany since the 1960's. So the newer lanterns say, under the logo, "Germany" on the left (with no mention of "Made in") and "Regd" on the right.

"Germany…Regd" doesn't mean the lantern was made in Germany. It doesn't mean the lantern was registered in Germany. It means the Petromax trademark was registered in Germany. Sweet.

The glass, etched "Made in Germany," means that the glass was made in Germany (not the whole lantern). My BriteLyt (a Petromax knockoff) came in a cardboard box bearing the sticker "Assembled in China." The cynical side of me, I must confess, wonders if the box was assembled in China and the lantern somewhere else.

The question keeps coming up on various Internet forums, "What's a Petromax? What is it really?"

In answer, please know that the Petromax brand name, the trademark, came first and the lantern followed. Today, after all, there are Coleman ice chests, Coleman collapsible marshmallow sticks, and all manner of other Coleman stuff. Petromax was no different.

Petromax was registered as a trademark in 1910 by Erich and Graetz, a German company. The trademark was used on alcohol lamps, electric lamps, kerosene lamps, wicks, chimneys, portable ovens, and many other items.

The Petromax trademark was allowed to lapse. It was subsequently reregistered by other companies. Today (2011), in the United States, BriteLyt owns it. Other countries, other owners. The lawyers prosper.

How about the lantern itself?

The first Petromax lantern patent was awarded to Max Graetz in 1912. But there were many patented improvements. By 1928, what we think of today as a "Petromax" was pretty much in final form and the patents were owned by four different companies: Erich and Graetz AG, J. Hirschhorn AG, Hugo Schneider AG, and Continental-Light AG. (The AG suffix stands for AktienGesellschaft and means that it is a shareholder-owned company.)

Each of these four made their own version of the lantern. Respectively, the lantern brands these companies sold were Petromax, Aida, HASAG, and Continental. The patents have long since expired so the Petromax design is freely copied by everyone.

In the USA, Coleman is the big name. But world-wide, many more Petromax lanterns exist than do Coleman lanterns. Petromax brothers, sisters, cousins, and clones include Butterfly (Cixi, China), Butterfly (Lea Hin, Singapore), BriteLyt, Anchor, Sea Anchor, Tower, Santrax, Egret, Solex (Italy), Aida, Geniol, Hipolito (Portugal), Fama, Primus (Sweden), Optimus (Sweden), HASAG, Buflam-Petroflam (England), Aurora (Argentina), Big Wheel, Light, Red Heart, Silveray, Crown (Iraq), Kohinoor (India), Pochee (India), Prabhat (India), Petro Pintsch (Germany), Petrostar (Germany), Solar (China), Standard (Germany), Double Rabbit (Thailand), Cow, Bee, Eye, Glory (China), Yüksel (Turkey), Wenzel (Sam's Club), and Col-Max (USA). Col-Max? Yes. Just before World War II, Coleman began making a Petromax clone for export, intended to directly compete with Petromax itself.

All of which testifies to the excellence of the original Petromax design.

Many of these brands are no longer manufactured although most appear on eBay from time to time. All of the new ones (whatever they may be trademarked including Petromax itself) are made in the Far East and any one factory produces several different brands. Unfortunately, it's pretty typical that the tooling is old and worn, threads are rounded and don't hold, holes don't line up, pumps don't pump, and prickers don't prick.

There's a difference between the Petromax design and the Petromax specs (clearances, machining tolerances, and so on), just like there's a difference between an original Rolex wristwatch and a Rolex knockoff. And even amongst knockoffs, some are better than others.

The Petromax chapter is 13 pages long. Above are the first 2½ pages from that chapter.

Table of Contents


Why did I write this? — Who is the target audience? — Disclaimer — Safety

Chapter 1
Matches and Lighters

Charcoal "lighter fluid" vs. Zippo "lighter fluid" — Zippo lighters vs. butane — Where does the idea come from that mineral spirits (charcoal lighter fluid) is explosive? — Substitutes for Zippo lighter fluid — IMCO lighters — Matches — Match chemistry — Strike anywhere matches — Waterproof matches

Chapter 2

Safety — The candle flashlight — Wax types — Burn times — UCO candle lanterns — Melting wax safely — Making hand-dipped candles — Homemade tea candles — Tabbed wicks — Homemade tubs — Homemade candle lanterns — Wick types — Mordants — Hurri-Candles — Safety

Chapter 3
Vegetable Oil Lamps

Cotton puff lamp — Toothpick lamp — Crude lantern — Beer bottle lamp — Corn oil — Floating-wick lamp — Japanese shokudai — String lamp — Vegetable oil in a regular kerosene lamp

Chapter 4
Fat Lamps

Tuna can fat lamp— Toothpick lamp — The I-Didn't-Know-That-Olive-Oil-Would-Burn fat lamp — Copper fat lamp — Fuels: safe and not-safe

Chapter 5
Petroleum – Part 1

Crude oil — Oil refining — Methane — Ethane — Propane — Butane — Gasoline — Octane — White gas — Amoco — Coleman fuel — Storage of Coleman fuel

Chapter 6
Petroleum – Part 2

Mineral spirits — Flammable vs. combustible — "Combustible" is the Spanish word for fuel — Kerosene (coal oil, jet fuel, military designations) — Diesel (fuel oil #2) — ppm (parts per million) sulfur — Mineral oil — Synthetic products (Ultra-Pure, Klean-Heat)

Chapter 7
Mineral Spirits

Is it safe to use mineral spirits in a kerosene lamp? — Mineral spirits is "combustible" — Paint thinner — Evaporation rates — Kerosene in rain gauges — MSDS sheets — TESTS: Kero vs. Mineral Spirits — Test #1 (fuel temperature & flame temperature) — Test #2 (fuel temperature) — Test #3 (viscosity/permeability) — Test #4 (flash point) — Quotes from yachters — Commercial conflicts of interest

Chapter 8
Kerosene Lamp Theory

Design criteria — Must use combustible fuel, not flammable — Must be no crack in the wick tube — Grooved joint; lap joint; butt joint — Whale oil lamp — Heat shield — Wick must fit snugly — Flame-to-fuel distance — Candlepower defined — Candlepower vs. wattage — My visual system of rating light output

Chapter 9
Kerosene Lamps Practice

Parts of a lamp — Wicks (cotton, fiberglass) — Font — Collar — Burner — Shroud — Chimney — The concept of "nominal" dimensions — Lines/lignes — Size chart — Fuel — Lamp Operation — Trimming the wick — Lamp & Lantern Styles — Miniature — Finger Lamp — "Ordinary" flat-wick lamp — Flat-wick lanterns — Hot Blast — Cold Blast — Dead Flame

Chapter 10

History — Chimney — Wicks — Burning a wick — Feeder wicks — Snuffer — Hong Kong "Duplex" — Lamp & part availability — The good, the bad, and the ugly

Chapter 11
Rayo & Kosmos

History — Availability — The necessities — Optional parts — New-Old Stock (NOS) — Wicks — Changing the wick — Trimming the wick — Chime dents — Stress cracks — Gas tank coatings — Cracked galleries — Competitors of yesteryear (e.g. B&H) — Kosmos — Matador

Chapter 12

History — Theory of operation — Thorium — Yttrium — Radioactivity — Styles (sock, preformed, double-tie) — Instaclip — Installing a tiestyle mantle — Sizes — What if too big? Too small? — Petromax mantles — Northstar mantles — Firing a new mantle — Old wives tales — Silk-Lite (No. 20, 21A, 999, 1111) — Goldtop — Peerless (Aladdin, Type 111, 24-A, 2C-HG) — Homemade

Chapter 13

Models & years sold — Model 23 — Lox-On — Paper shades — Altitude, tall chimneys — Spare parts discussion — Mantle availability (Chicago, English, Brazilian, Maltese, Filipino) — 2010 halt in production — Today's Philippine mantles — New mantles on old lamps and vice versa — Models 11, 12, 21: highly touted but for collectors — 'star' Model 23: garden variety for survivors

Chapter 14
Gas, Propane, Butane

Lamps that don't require pumping — Wall-mounted; natural gas & propane — Mr Heater installation — Fire insurance — Portable propane lamps — Portable butane lamps — Piezoelectric lighting

Chapter 15
Quick-Lite & Instant-Lite

Quick-Lite; how it works — Generator — Check Valve — Pumps — Evolution: Pyrex vs. mica; R55 vs. Q99 generators — Instant-Lite — Adjusting brightness — Safety — Using a lantern inside — Oxygen starvation — Carbon monoxide — Mantle damaged in use — Storage of white gas — Labeled Quick-Lite photo — Labeled Instant-Lite photo

Chapter 16
Adjustable-Brightness & Dual Fuel

Burning petrol — Caution re: leaded automobile gas — Model 275 was transitional — Schrader valve — Model 285 performance on petrol — Caution re: unleaded automobile gas — Adjustable brightness — Light output of adjustable-brightness lanterns — Light output is a function of fuel consumption — Labeled Dual-Fuel photos

Chapter 17
Coleman Kerosene Lanterns

Is kerosene the intended fuel in this lantern? — Safety — Coleman kerosene models that are safe when using gasoline — Kerosene pressure lamp desirability — Availability — As a multi-fuel lantern, 639-with-pricker is King of the Road — What are the options to get a kero pressure lantern? — Converting a gas lantern to kero — Tip sizes — What are filters made of? — Coleman warning — Kero conversions with a filter in the generator — 200A — 275 — 220 & 228 — Leacock Model 107 — 285 non-conversion — Salvaging a generator — Diesel fuel — Why the fixation with Coleman? — Labeled Coleman 237 photos

Chapter 18

History — Trademark — Clone brand names — Diesel fuel in a Petromax — Part numbering — How the lantern works — Petromax mantles — Gasoline in a BriteLyt — German army-surplus Petromaxes — Labeled Petromax photos

Chapter 19
Alcohol as Lamp Fuel

Ethanol — Methanol — Denatured — Isopropyl — Is alcohol safe in a homemade YouTube-no-tube lamp? — Is alcohol safe in an Aladdin lamp? — Titus — Hugo Schneider (Pyro) — Kriegslichtbrenner — Is alcohol safe in a conventional kerosene lamp? — Is alcohol safe in a lab-type alcohol burner? — LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) — Auto Ignition Temperature — Flash Point — Latent Heat of Evaporation — Lamp design factors — Are there pressure lamps that can be converted to alcohol? — Petromax — Leacock Model 107 — Are there any pressure lamps designed exclusively for alcohol? — Primus — BriteLyt

Chapter 20
So Which One Is Best?

Just tell me what's good and readily available — Brightest — Cheapest — Lowest operating cost — Lowest Smell — Multi-fuel — Alcohol — Burning fluid — Calcium carbide — Multi-fuel Chart — Electronic ignition — No hiss — Off-grid in America — Off-grid in Darkest Africa — Off-grid, TEOTWAWKI — Closing thought